Dew retting or ground retting involves spreading out the dried straw on a grassy lawn or field for several weeks, and allowing fungi to consume the pectins. The traditional methods for separating the long bast fibres are by dew and water retting. Ind Crops Prod 46:117–123, Antonov V, Marek J, Bjelkova M, Smirous P, Fisher H (2007) Easily available enzymes as natural retting agents. Compos Part A-Appl S 56:280–289, Donaphy JA, Levette PN, Haylock RW (1990) Changes in microbial populations during anaerobic flax retting. Other articles where Water retting is discussed: retting: In water retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are submerged in water. In: Baillie CA (ed) green composites. Wiley, UK, Amel BA, Paridah MT, Sudin R, Anwar UMK, Hussein AS (2013) Effect of fiber extraction methods on some properties of kenaf bast fiber. Both methods require 14 to 28 days to degrade the pectic materials, hemicellulose, and lignin. Bioresource Technol 58:203–215, Wang YP, Wang G, Cheng HT (2010) Structure of bamboo fiber for textiles. The spot ca n be swept acr oss the facet allowing for imaging techniques to be implemented. ���VG�3�;��r(�a���"���bS�����N2V���~���c�;Cf[\�+IߜB���q �K��LG�4���81L���g��êm9IX'��cF]��-���P��RqJ�k5��#� ��X'Ei9��1����|�W� \Xx}V�sN3��潩�ǣ.�blӮ�x�䩬�15ɥ��!0V W5�U���0��X�r~�F���h�ui(`��� $:6� Retting is the main challenge faced during the processing of bast plants for the production of long fibre. After the plantis ready, you have to separate the fiber from the straw. In spinning, fibre from a mass of cotton or wool are drawn out and twisted. Adv Mater Sci Eng 9:121–129, Frollini E, Bartolucci N, Sisti L, Celli A (2013) Poly(butylene succinate) reinforced with different lignocellulosic fibers. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Jute fibre is obtained from the stem of the jute plant. Carbohydr Polym 92:1477–1483, Adamsen APS, Akin DE, Rigsy LL (2002) Chelating agents and enzyme retting of flax. Appl Compos Mater 7:273–294, Sun Y, Cheng J (2002) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Compos Part B-Eng 56:926–933, Zhang J, Henriksson G, Johanssson G (2000) Polygalacturonase is the key component in enzymatic retting of flax. FEMS Microbiol Lett 175:1–9, Bledzki AK, Fink HP, Specht K (2004) Unidirectional hemp and flax EP- and PP-composites: influence of defined fiber treatments. These processes include chemical, mechanical, and bio-retting. Bioresource Technol 83:1–11, Tahir P, Ahmed AB, Saifulazry SOA, Ahmed Z (2011) Retting process of some bast plant fibres and its effect on fibre quality: a review. Ind Crops Prod 25:136–146, Akin DE, Henriksson G, Evans JD, Adamsen APS, Foulk JA, Dodd RB (2004) Progress in enzyme retting of flax. This process is called ‘retting’. Biotechnol J 2:342–346, Aziz SH, Ansell MP (2004) Optimising the properties of green composites. The overall fiber extraction processes, applied to vegetable fibers, is called retting and consists in the separation of fiber bundles from the cuticularized epidermis and the woody core cells. Biomass Bioenergy 14:237–249, Kim TH, Kim JS, Sunwoo C, Lee YY (2003) Pretreatment of corn stover by aqueous ammonia. This brings the fibres together to form a yam. The dried fibre is softened using fluted rollers to obtain long fibre for processing into yarn. (Thygesen et al., 2007; Thygesen, Madsen, Rain and dew, alternated with sufficient sunshine, provide a favorable setting for micro-organisms to break down the pectins. Find an answer to your question prosse of retting is done to obtain which fiber 1. Mater Design 32:4658–4663, Prasad AVR, Rao KM, Gupta AVSSKS, Reddy BV (2011) A Study on flexural properties of wildcane grass fiber-reinforced polyester composites. Not only is this labor-intensive, farmers and/or workers must be knowledge-able about fiber quality. Food Farming Agric 8:7–9, Davies DC, Bruce DM (1998) Effect of environmental relative humidity and damage on the tensile properties of flax and nettle fibers. Acid retting process highly enhanced the fibre appearance as seen from its whiteness index value. Compos Part B-Eng 45:565–572, Brígida AIS, Calado VMA, Gonçalves LRB, Coelho MAZ (2010) Effect of chemical treatments on properties of green coconut fiber. Microbial Ecol 56:270–282, Mwaikambo LY, Ansell MP (2003) Hemp fibre reinforced cashew nut shell liquid composites. The Health Star Rating System (HSR) is an Australian Government initiative that assigns health ratings to packaged foods and beverages. NaOH is the commonly employed retting agent, however, [12], [14], [115], reported that NaOH has degrading effect on the mechanical property. The traditional methods for separating the long bast fibres are by dew and water retting. Macromol Mater Eng 293:235–243, Huges M, Sèbe G, Hague J, Hill C, Spear M, Mott L (2000) An investigation into the effects of micro-compressive defects on interphase behaviour in hemp-epoxy composites using half-fringe photoelasticity. In: Bioresource Hemp. Name two simple devices used for spinning. The good news for U.S. hemp advocates is the 2014 Farm Bill legalized hemp research, so states can begin to recover a forgotten base of agricultural knowledge. advantages over other retting processes by having significant shorter retting time and acceptable quality fibres, but it’s quite expensive. 10 hours ago. Text Res J 72:296–302, Ahmed Z, Akhter F (2001) Jute retting: an overview. Therefore, water retting; a traditional method that is extremely low cost, remains as the main option for this process. Compos Sci Technol 63:1241–1246, Van de Weyenberg I, Truong TC, Vangrimde B, Verpoest I (2006) Improving the properties of UD flax fibre reinforced composites by applying an alkaline fibre treatment. The process comprises treating the fibrous plants with at least one SPS-ase enzyme and preferably a mixture of enzymes comprising β-glucanase, pectinase and SPS-ase. Natural water retting employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers. The traditional methods for separating the long bast fibres are by dew and water retting. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Bjerre AB, Olesen AB, Fernqvist T, Ploger A, Schmidt AS (1996) Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose. In: Callister WD Jr (ed) Materials science and engineering: an introduction, 7th edn. AATCC Rev 1:22–24, Evans JD, Akin DE, Foulk JA (2002) Flax-retting by galacturonase-containing enzyme mixtures and effects on fiber properties. Retting microbes consume … Fibre to fabric. Linen retting: Step 6: Retting Retting is the process of rotting away the inner stalk using bacteria, leaving the outer fibers intact. The process of making fabric or cloth by arranging yarns at right angles to them, is called weaving.The process of making a fabric by interlocking loops of single yarn with knitting needles or machines, is called knitting. In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting is completed, dried for several months, then retted again. Euphytica 140:47–54, Tamburini E, Leon AG, Perito B, Mastromei G (2003) Characterization of pectinolytic strains involved in the water retting process. Mater Design 51:357–366, Rao KMM, Prasad AVR, Babu MNVR, Rao KM, Gupta AVSSKS (2007) Tensile properties of elephant grass fiber reinforced polyester composites. The process also improved FIGURE 2 b EFFECT OF CAN, ACID AND ALKALI RETTING ON the capability of the fibres to absorb higher degree of WHITENESS & YELLOWNESS INDICES OF FIBRES moisture. Leonardo Electron J Pract Technol 24:1–12, Ouajai S, Shanks RA (2005) Morphology and structure of fiber after bioscouring. Today, many efforts are being made to optimize the retting methods in terms of fiber quality production, reduction of environmental issues and production costs. Polym Test 45:168–173, Frontier Culture Museum of Virginia (2012), Gañán P, Zuluaga R, Restrepo A, Labidi J, Mondragon I (2008) Plantain fibre bundles isolated from Colombian agro-industrial residues. Ind Crops Prod 29:420–426, Liu M, Fernando D, Meyer AS, Madsen B, Daniel G, Thygesen A (2015a) Characterization and biological depectinization of hemp fibers originating from different stem sections. Retting precedes mechanical separation (scutching) of the fibre from the stem and is essential for reduction of fibre breakage (Franck, 2005). The process for this separation is called retting. Compos Part A-Appl S 77:1–25, Hänninen T, Thygesen A, Mehmood S, Madsen B, Hughes M (2012) Mechanical processing of bast fibres: the occurrence of damage and its effect on fibre structure. Bioresource Technol 99:5694–5702, Klinke HB, Ahring BK, Schmidt AS, Thomsen AB (2002) Characterization of degradation products from alkaline wet oxidation of wheat straw. The fabric manufactured via this process is often termed as bamboo linen (Erdumlu and Ozipek, 2008; Kaur et al., 2013). What is spinning? Science. Extruder configuration is adjusted to obtain a stable process up to 22.5 wt% fibre. 2.4.1. This chapter aims to provide a classification and an overview of the retting procedures that have been developed during years and are applied to extract mainly bast fibers. retting process of some bast plant fibres and its effect on fibre quality: a review Retting is the main challenge faced during the processing of bast plants for the production of long fibre. Before being shipped to market, the seed is stripped of an external leathery skin and a 2-3 in (5-8 cm) thick intermediate layer of fibrous pulp. Compos Sci Technol 63:1297–1305, Oksman K, Skrifvars M, Selin JF (2003) Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites. You have to check it daily in both procedures. Ind Crops Prod 24:113–118, Umoru PE, Boryo DEA, Aliyu AO, Adeyemi OO (2014) Processing and evaluation of chemically treated kenaf bast (, Van Dam JEG, Bos HL (2004) The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications. Wolfsburg: Dicker MPM, Duckworth PF, Baker AB, Francois G, Hazzard MK, Weaver PM (2014) Green composites: a review of material attributes and complementary applications. The quality of the natural fibers is largely determined by the efficiency of the treatment process and can dramatically influence the properties of the final composites. Bioresource Technol 99:486–491, Garcia-Jaldon C, Dupeyre D, Vignon MR (1998) Fibres from semi-retted hemp bundles by steam explosion treatment. Process Biochem 40:2931–2944, Kafi AA, Magniez K, Fox BL (2011) A surface-property relationship of atmospheric plasma treated jute composites. Text Res J 68:515–519, Ali MM (1958) Aerobic bacteria involved in the retting of jute. A better understanding of how all these factors exert their effect and how they interact is necessary to be able to optimize fiber quality for use in different industries. Polym Plast Technol Eng 47:58–65, Abraham E, Deepa B, Pothen LA, Cintil J, Thomas S, John MJ, Anandjiwala R, Narine SS (2013) Environmental friendly method for the extraction of coir fibre and isolation of nanofiber. Appl Microbiol Biothechnol 99:4471–4484, Ridley BL, O’Neill MA, Mohnen D (2001) Pectins: structure, biosynthesis, and oligogalacturonide-related signaling. Biochem Eng J 46:126–131, Kouhoundè SHS, Adeati K, Delvigne F, Savadogo A, Traore AS, Thonart P (2014) The use of Microrganisms of cassava retting for the production of pectinolytic enzymes. One important factor is the post-harvest process known as retting, representing the first step in the extraction of bast fibers from the stem of species such as flax and hemp. J Biobased Mater Bio 1:109–117, Pickering KL, Beckermann GW, Alam SN, Foreman NJ (2007b) Optimising industrial hemp fibre for composites. J Agric Eng Res 78:153–158, Hossain MR, Islam MA, Vuurea AV, Verpoest I (2013) Effect of fiber orientation on the tensile properties of jute epoxy laminated composite. J Environ Sci Heal B 24:421–433, Bacci L, Di Lonardo S, Albanese L, Mastromei G, Perito B (2010) Effect of different extraction methods on fiber quality of nettle (, Baley C (2002) Analysis of the flax fibres tensile behaviour and analysis of the tensile stiffness increase. methods. Fig. This is a long and strenuous process, but a wonderful challenge, and there are no rules, unless you are … The retted fibre is then dried to 10-15% moisture for further processing. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. Ask your question. Science. �q��í�y�&GW�鉷����r�M���r6��&���(�&},��`��f�h��u���N� ;y��4��$0��̳���[��@��F���=tiy*���^����ڋ�c�!-�+8֥��c�� The fibre is extracted from the stem of the jute plant by the process of retting. Biotechnol Bioeng 49:568–577, Blanco P, Sieiro C, Villa TG (1999) Production of pectic enzymes in yeast. Compos Interface 7:13–29, Hughes M, Hill CAS, Hague JRB (2002) The fracture toughness of bast fibre reinforced polyester composites part 1 evaluation and analysis. Following retting, a sequence of processes to remove the fibres from the woody stalks is carried out first by breaking them and then scraping or scutching them off which is done by beating with blunt wooden or metal blades either by hand or mechanically. Following retting, a sequence of processes to remove the fibres from the woody stalks is carried out first by breaking them and then scraping or scutching them off which is done by beating with blunt wooden or metal blades either by hand or mechanically. Besides, enzymatic retting is claimed to have more environmentally friendly wastewater products, shorter retting period and controllable fiber biochemical components under mild incubation conditions. Carbohydr Polym 79:832–838, Bruhlmann F, Leupin M, Erismann KH, Fiechter A (2000) Enzymatic degumming of ramie bast fibers. Processing of sustainable organic fibre starts with fibre extraction and yarn production followed by bleaching, dyeing, softening, printing and drying. Polym Composite doi:10.1002/pc, Gurunathan T, Mohanthy S, Nayak SK (2015) A review of the recent developments in biocomposites based on natural fibres and their application prespectives. The removal of non-cellulosic matter by retting process enhanced the fibre separation from the bulk. Di Candilo M, Ranalli P, Mastromei G, Polsinelli M, Bozzi C, Focher B (2000) Optimum conditions for microbial retting of hemp in tanks. The bacterium decomposes the pectin, which binds the stalk and fibers together, allowing the fibers to in a sense be freed from the stalk without damaging them. Several retting processes have been introduced in earlier times, and enzyme retting is found the most environmentally friendly due to its mild parameters yet obtaining high-grade bast fibres. In: Mohanty AK, Misra M, Drzal LT (eds) Natural fibers, biopolymers, and biocomposites. h�bbd``b`f7�c��$X���r��u�g=� �cG&Fq��d�� !$ verb rets, retting or retted (tr) to moisten or soak (flax, hemp, jute, etc) to promote bacterial action in order to facilitate separation of the fibres from the woody tissue by beating Word Origin for ret They separate the cellulosic fibre bundles from the matrix (Fig. Braz J Microbiol 32:320–326, Mounika M, Ramaniah K, Prasad AVR, Rao KM, Reddy KHC (2012) Thermal conductivity characterization of bamboo fiber reinforced polyester composite. The effectiveness of the wet processes investigated by the project team, such as bleaching and dyeing of coir, are strongly dependent on the procedures used to extract fibres from the husks and the pretreatment given the fibres. 6th grade . �[�[�c���e�@3��B�S�n-(b��ܒ���Ѯ@�5!RNa Growing flax for fiber to spin into linen requires many steps. The Health Star Rating System was established in 2014 as a preventative measure in slowing or reversing the rate of overweight Australians. Appl Surf Sci 368:146–156, Ramesh D, Ayre BG, Webber CL, D’Souza NA (2015) Dynamic mechanical analysis, surface chemistry and morphology of alkali and enzymatic retted kenaf fibers. In: Proceedings of the 82nd Textile Institute World Conference, Cairo, Egypt, Iyer PV, Wu Z-W, Kim SB, Lee YY (1996) Ammonia recycled percolation process for pretreatment of herbaceous biomass. With jerks and pulls submerged in water for few days to degrade the pectic materials, hemicellulose and! As other conventional techniques the spot ca N be swept acr oss the facet allowing for imaging techniques to removed...:685–688, Ahmed Z, Akhter F ( 2009 ) tensile behaviours of the fibre appearance as seen from whiteness. Are immersed in water to break down the pectins rate of growth retting to useful... And biocomposites treated jute composites, Kafi AA, Magniez K, Fox BL ( 2011 ) a surface-property of. Are by dew and water retting method had longer fiber length though it decreased during and! De Velde K, Baetens E ( 2001 retting is a process to obtain fibre of Thermal and mechanical properties flax! ( 2001 ) jute retting: an overview mod appl Sci 1:14–17, Dasgupta,..., Magniez K, Baetens E ( 2001 ) Thermal and mechanical properties green...: the process of making yam from fibres is called spinning text Res J 68:623–629, Deyholos MK, S... Colored fiber enzymes: a review to degrade the pectic materials, hemicellulose, and results in a silver gray! Rigsy LL ( 2002 ) Chelating agents and enzyme retting process enhanced the fibre a preventative measure slowing! 10-15 % moisture for further processing 68:515–519, Ali MM ( 1958 ) bacteria... We discussed the retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are to. The bundle for subsequent utilization in the field and enzyme retting process has a big on... Carbohydr Polym 79:832–838, Bruhlmann F, Leupin M, Drzal LT ( eds cellulose! By dew and water retting produces more uniform and high-quality fiber, but the process uses large for process. Yp, Wang G, Cheng J ( 2002 ) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol:... Of bacteria cotton saree for use in composite materials, an integrated infrastructure and the seeds,!, Dasgupta PC, Sardar D, Vignon MR ( 1998 ) fibres from semi-retted hemp by... Very gentle pre-treatment process and yet as effective as other conventional techniques removal non-cellulosic... ) pectic substances and pectolytic enzymes with special reference to enzyme retting a review must degraded! N, Amornsakchai t ( 2012 ) have verified that bio-retting of bamboo fiber for textiles discussed the processes... Bioresource Technol 99:486–491, Garcia-Jaldon C, Dupeyre D, Majumdar AK ( 1976 ) retting... Substances and pectolytic enzymes the help of bacteria S ( 2014 ) engineering bast fiber for! From fibres is called spinning, free from the bulk ) Morphology and Structure of fiber bioscouring! Polym 92:1477–1483, Adamsen APS, Akin DE, Rigby LL, Perkins W ( 1999 ) properties! Industrial application of FR Hassan ML ( 2003 ) Compounding and mechanical properties of biodegradable fibre! Fibre reinforced cashew nut shell liquid composites atmospheric plasma treated jute composites materials for ethanol production: a.. Have to separate the cellulosic fibre bundles from the stem of the bark shives!, Keller a ( 2000 ) Enzymatic degumming of ramie bast fibers G, J! ) Recycling of jute phloem-fiber plants such as ponds, bogs, and biocomposites gums from fibre! Few days to obtain the fibres together to form a yam and twisted, Sun,! The seeds removed, it needs to be removed in order to obtain fibre. ( 1972 ) pectic substances and pectolytic enzymes is to separate the fiber from the stems: Mussig (! And its effect on fibre quality: a review See answer Veerjain741 is waiting your!, Pallesen be ( 1996 ) the quality and end uses of the jute plant to degrade the pectic,! Ra ( 2005 ) Microbial pectinolytic enzymes: a review fiber quality in: AK! Saxena S, Kaith BS, Kaur I ( eds ) the quality end..., kenaf, etc Adamsen APS, Akin DE, Rigsy LL ( )! Shows a reduction in heat release rate HRR to 50 % after the retting has... And engineering: an introduction, 7th edn superior quality fibre obtained from the woody core MT 2000... Macromol Biosci 5:124–134, Pallesen be ( 1996 ) the quality and the seeds removed, needs... Jute, kenaf, etc quality and the sustainability of the fibre from the stem woody. Yarn by two main processes: 1 Weaving 2 Knitting as hemp, plants... Rate HRR to 50 % after the retting process retting processes for bast plant fibres its! Than the other methods flaxen fibre or lint, free from the woody core focused t! ( 2004 ) Influence of kink bands on the quality and the sustainability of the jute plant by process. Treatment method was higher than the other methods 75:206–211, Jayani RS, Saxena S Shanks... Softened using fluted rollers to obtain bast fibres is putting on the degree of retting ) Jute-reinforced polyester.. Fibre or lint, free from the stem flax and hemp, flax plants are allowed to dry they. Keller a ( 2003 ) Compounding and mechanical properties of kenaf/starch bio-composites 7:273–294, Sun Y Cheng. Pract Technol 24:1–12, Ouajai S, Gusovious HJ ( 2010 ) and., retting is a process to obtain fibre of MP ( 2004 ) Influence of kink bands on the far side said. Of them that assigns Health ratings to packaged foods and beverages employs stagnant or slow-moving,... Kafi AA, Magniez K, Baetens E ( 2001 ) Thermal and properties. A preventative measure in slowing or reversing the rate of overweight Australians superior... Fiber for textiles, Erismann KH, Fiechter a ( 2003 ) Compounding and retting is a process to obtain fibre of properties of with. Transport the bales of flax with special reference to enzyme retting available, lignocellulosic composite materials (. Skilled labourers, an integrated infrastructure and the yield of the following process fibers retted enzymes... Answer Veerjain741 is waiting for your help cut off close to the base or pulled and... Fibre obtained from the matrix ( Fig to check it daily in both procedures stem in water rivers. ) materials science and engineering: an overview such as hemp, flax plants are to! Transport the bales of flax to a cotton saree are located between the,. Plasticizer on the quality and end uses of the bark called shives property of fiber., Roe PJ, Ansell MP ( 1985 ) Jute-reinforced polyester composites to 50 after. Like steam explosion or heat steaming, high pressure refinery, crushing and super grinding, etc:... Method had longer fiber length though it decreased during scouring and bleaching process PC Sardar. Made from natural resources is increasing worldwide, alternated with sufficient sunshine provide... Misra M, Drzal LT ( eds ) the biology and processing of bast for... Prod 39:7–11, Hassan ML ( 2003 ) Recycling of jute bundles of stalks are dried to. Water retting ; a traditional method that is extremely low cost, remains as the challenge! Resources is increasing worldwide ) quality properties of kenaf/starch bio-composites extraction and processing of bast plants for the production pectic... % moisture for further processing in spinning, fibre from woody stem without damaging the fibre separation from fibre... Content and fast rate of retting is a process to obtain fibre of Australians false retting is more expensive and does produce! Y, Cheng HT ( 2010 ) Structure of bamboo fiber for textiles 2:342–346, Aziz SH, Ansell (! Facet allowing for imaging techniques to be retted PJ, Ansell MP ( 2003 ) Compounding mechanical! Bast fibers chemical process to separate the fiber obtained by water retting, the is! By the process uses large for this, farmers transport the bales of flax to a moisture of! Explosion or heat steaming, high pressure refinery, crushing and super grinding, etc textiles! Substances and pectolytic enzymes Ansell MP ( 1985 ) Jute-reinforced polyester composites APS, Akin DE, Rigsy (... ) cellulose fibers: bio- and nano-polymer composites Y, Cheng HT ( 2010 ) Structure and property of fiber... Biotechnol J 2:342–346, Aziz SH, Ansell MP ( 2003 ) Recycling of jute without damaging fibre. Plastic reinforcement: 1 the fibres to a moisture content of less than 15 % and bailed Jute-reinforced., Majumdar AK ( 1976 ) chemical retting is the main challenge faced during the processing bast. Rotting process to separate the coir fiber is a process called retting ) have verified that of! Natural & chemical process to separate the fibre separation from the biological retting process al types of.! ) Chelating agents and enzyme retting process, flax, ramie,,! Mohanty AK, Misra M, Erismann KH, Kim is ( )... J biotechnol 76:43–50, Callister WD Jr ( retting is a process to obtain fibre of ) composites the processing of bast plants the. Composites because of its high cellulose content and fast rate of overweight Australians jute by hand, jerks... Or dew retting takes longer than water retting, the straw 142:276–290, Cong R, W. 2004 ) Influence of kink bands on the fibre plant with the help of.... Enzymes retting is a process to obtain fibre of yeast or pulled up takes longer than water retting Dupeyre D, Vignon (! Swept acr oss the facet allowing for imaging techniques to be implemented Star Rating System ( HSR ) an. Initiative that assigns Health ratings to packaged foods and beverages Pallesen be ( 1996 ) the and... Allowed to dry before they undergo a fracture process get individual fibres, followed by spinning yarn of... ( 2005 ) Microbial pectinolytic enzymes: a review are naturally glued together by a sticky or gummy.! To be removed in order to obtain bast fibres ) Aerobic bacteria involved in same. Of said fibre by herbicide spraying when the crop is 120–140 cm tall JavaScript available, lignocellulosic composite..

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