During the storage of fish, dynamic primary changes are taking place in numerous parts of the fish, including the eyes, skin, gills and muscle characteristics of the fish. Under laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved withBacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 40°. Sci.5: 11–17. - 185.32.189.129. Amongst the bast fibre crops, kenaf apparently has some advantages such as lower cost of production, higher fibre yields, and greater flexibility as an agricultural resource, over … This process is faster than the traditional methods of retting and is already taking over the fibre-extraction industry and has been a go-to option for textile producers. • Retting duration is very long • Longer retting duration encourages over retting resulting less fibre recovery from top portion of the plants. Retting Environment • Jute assimilates about 5.8 ton CO2 from the atmosphere in its lifetime (Rahman and Bala, 2009). The optimum temperature is around 34°C. Both over retting and under retting which are very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre. For natural retting, still the most appropriate process in East Pakistan, large clean ponds are thought to provide the most suitable conditions. This process removes the non-fibrous material from the stem and the skin of the jute plant. Hemp Retting Is A Process In Which Retting Of Fibre Is Done. The jute fibers are located beneath the bark, primarily concentrated near the woody, central … 3. Eventually, the Bangladeshi government set up the Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation. Aerobic bacteria involved in the retting of jute. The traditional method is to ret the jute stems for about 15–18 days and extract the fibre manually after retting. CAS  The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Insitu Jute Retting contd. plant retting of jute and mesta has certain demerits. Ribbon retting reduces time of normal retting … Excellent fibre separation with ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMPA) has been reported [ 166 ]. Ind. Debsarma, G. D. 1946. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02860592, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Jour. Cult.9: 451. Most of the defects arising from conventional retting could be overcome by ribbon retting. Climate = Relative humidity between 40-90% and temperature between 17° C and 41°C, along with well distributed rainfall over 1200 mm is ideal for cultivation and growth of jute. M. Jalaluddin. China also has a dominating place in jute cultivation. Studies on jute retting bacteria. Moreover, requirement of water for ribbon retting is almost half in comparison to conventional whole plant retting under normal condition. Google Scholar. Jute—an important cash crop of eastern India is traditionally grown for extraction of fibre by a natural microbial process known as retting. Econ Bot 24, 137–141 (1970). They appear as wedge-shaped bundles of cells intermingled with parenchyma cells and other soft tissue. very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre. 1 Present address: Department of Botany and Plant Pa-thology, NMichigan State University, East Lansing, Mlichigan. Moreover, the fibre filaments were stronger, improved coloured and finer textured compared to conventional stem retted jute fibres. Both over retting and under retting which are very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre. • The fibre is black in colour with poor lusture. ... hemp, jute, kenaf, etc. Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. MATERIALS ANDMETHODS For the detection of the rettinig ability of such bac-teria, sterile jute-stem-tubes were prepared by intro- Bunt, J. S. & A. D. Rovira. The ribbon retted jute fibres are absolutely free from bark and were of higher grade. Retting time must be carefully judged; under-retting makes separation difficult, and over-retting weakens the fibre. The jute plant, a native of the Indian subcontinent, is a herbaceous annual growing to a height of around 10 to 12 feet with a central cylindrical stem, and 4- to 6-inch long light green leaves and yellow flowers. The most widely practiced method of retting, water retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water. Ponds in villages are not allowed for jute retting in general as the water turns dark and foul-smelling making it unfit for domestic use and pisciculture, breeds mosquitoes and creates environmental problem. Present address: Crop Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibre, ICAR, Barackpore, India. In ribbon retting, ribbons are stripped out mechanically from the stem of mature jute plants, coiled and allowed to ret under water. 4. Here Is A List Of Some Enzymes That Helps In Retting Of Hemp. Next, the plant is put through what is called retting. 1955. Sci.16: 453–58. After the liberation of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, most of the Pakistani owned jute mills were taken over by the government of Bangladesh. 1944. volume 24, pages137–141(1970)Cite this article. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. In conventional retting, a huge biomass undergoes decomposition in stagnant water, so retting causes environmental pollution. A process called retting is used to remove the non-fibrous material from the stem and skin of the jute stalk. Over retting causes degradation of fibre cellulose while under retting causes incomplete removal of gummy materials viz., pectic substances. Jute fiber develops in the phloem or bast region of the stem of the plants; in transverse sections of the stem. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Abstract BBS.2008. Google Scholar. Pectic enzyme ofPenicillium frequentons involved in the retting of jute. • Under ground water was then added to the retting tank and the jute Isolation of micro-organisms from jute retting pit, their characterization, and their action on jute stem. Dead fibres: Due to over retting in moist condition, the fibre becomes dull, lose strength and becomes inferior for spinning. See more. Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. Runners: This is a defect where a long and hard barky ribbon of fibres remains in … After this retting process is over, the non-fibrous matter of jute is scraped off in a process called "stripping", and then the fibers are separated by beating the stem with a paddle. Jour. The fibres can be extracted by either biological or chemical retting … Microbiol.6(2): 87–89. • Harvested jute bundles are arranged radially up to three layers keeping base of the plants towards periphery of the pond. In our study, a mixed bacterial retting culture, developed in our institute, was inoculated during ribbon retting of jute. Jour, agric. So, ribbon retting is a great promise to produce high quality jute fibre in one hand and a more eco-friendly measure on the other. The process of retting consists of bundling stems of the jute and immersing these in water that is slowly running. Land – Jute can grow in wide range of soil but fertile loamy alluvial soil is better suitable.. After harvesting the jute bundles are kept in the field for 2 -3 days to allow leaf shedding. The processing of jute varieties such as Corchorus capsularis - white jute (Sada paat) and Hibiscus cannabinus (Mesta paat) are mainly used for jute cultivation in West Bengal nowadays.After harvesting the jute plants, jute fibres are extracted by retting. Retting: For fibre extraction, the jute stems are retted in water for 3-4 days, after harvesting and defoliation of plants in the fields. CAS  appl. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. This Order is valid upto 30 th September, 2020. • Conventional retting practice emits a little bit more nutrients, biogas and residues to the air and water compared to ribbon retting. Microbiological studies of some sub-Antarctic soils. Most of the defects in fiber are … Incomplete submergence produces croppy fiber of extremely low value. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant fibre) and lignin (major components of wood fibre). Economic Botany Ditches, tanks and pools are also used for retting. Ali, M. M. & M. A. Islam. Appl. Salle, A. J. Then the fiber is stripped away from the bark by hand (retting) and woven into usable product. Biochemical investigations on jute retting. Almost 85% of the world's jute cultivation is concentrated in the Ganges Delta.. Jour. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of cellulolytic bacteria. Part of Springer Nature. Jalaluddin, M. Further observations on the bacteriology of jute retting. The jute fibres contain knots in places and it is caused by insect bite or punctures. Copyright © 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6690(02)00097-3. PubMed Google Scholar. • Microbial consortium with a cfu (108 to 1010) was then applied to the jute bundles in the pond. Rishbeth, J. Jute is long, soft and shiny, with a length of 1 to 4 m and a diameter of from 17 to 20 microns. Jute is an eco-friendly and bio-degradable natural product with no adverse effect on the environment. Correspondence to Usually mature stems of harvested jute plants are allowed to ret in pond or ditch water. They probably enter stems over the whole surface through stomata, as well as through cut ends and leaf scars, after immersion for retting. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Ret definition, to soak in water or expose to moisture, as flax or hemp, to facilitate the removal of the fiber from the woody tissue by partial rotting. Moreover, 2.5 lakh people are employed in the organized jute industry, and over 25 lakhs people are engaged in jute based ancillary and jute diversified sectors. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of cellulolytic bacteria. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. After the liberation of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, most of the Pakistani owned jute mills were taken over by the government of Bangladesh. • The strength of fibre is very poor. The fibers are extracted first by retting. CAS  Soil pH – 6 -7.5 is ideal soil pH where jute is cultivated.. Econ. Retting is a preferential rotting process to separate the fibre from woody stem without damaging the fibre cellulose. Pakist. Chaudhury, S. D. 1953. Traditional retting of jute takes 15 to 20 days and requires large quantity of water which should be preferably slow-flowing water. Jute Fiber comes from the outer skin of the jute plant called the ribbon. Department of Botany, University of Dacca, Pakistan, You can also search for this author in Retting by hiparol and its commercial application. Acceleration of jute retting byBacillus cereus, certain chemicals and straw-water ratios. Article  2. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Ribbon retting of jute—a prospective and eco-friendly method for improvement of fibre quality. The stalks, over 3 meters in height, are gathered by hand and softened in water. Jute, a long, soft plant fiber that is spun into coarse, strong threads, is obtained from the plants Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis. Subscription will auto renew annually. Soil Sci.6: 119–128. PubMed  Google Scholar. Retting microbes consume the non-fibrous cementing materials mainly pectin and hemicellulose. The increment was 1.1 to 4 times higher over the WHO safe limit (0.05 mg L − 1) for India and Bangladesh. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. This fertile geographic region is shared by both Bangladesh and India (mainly West Bengal). Bacteria capable of retting jute are present in pond water, in the soil of jute fields, and on the surface of jute plants. • Total methane generation from jute production is estimated to be 18.8x1010 g/year. It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. Baruah, P. K. & H. K. Baruah. Bot.19(4): 384–393. different types of retting processes used for bast plants such as hemp, jute, flax, and kenaf, with an emphasis on kenaf. Microbia1: 34–43. Ahmad, M. 1963. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Private communication. Climate – Relative humidity between 40-90% and temperature between 17° C and 41°C, along with well distributed rainfall over 1200 mm is ideal for cultivation and growth of jute.. A short review of biochemical studies of jute retting. The mature jute plant is normally harvested by hand. Eleven jute fibre extraction machines have been distributed among 11 farmers free of cost in the district. Nicknamed the golden fiber, jute fiber deteriorates rapidly and because of uneven diameters and comparatively low cellulose concentrations, jute is relatively weak. Microbia1: 65–70. 1968. Over-retting was suspected for enzyme retting process with EDTA since relatively poorer bonding between the matrix and the fibre was observed. Retting softens the stalks and makes it possible to separate the fibrous material from the unusable material by hand. After the jute stalk has been retted, it is possible to separate the long, silky fibers and comb them into long strings. Retting of jute in pond water increased the water As content by 0.2 to 2.0 mg L − 1. Whole plant retting of jute and mesta with microbial consortium under controlled conditions reduced the retting duration by 7 days for jute, with improved fibre quality i.e. Eventually, the Bangladeshi government set up the Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation. Gently flowing, fairly deep, clear and soft water is ideal for retting. The two retting types are ribbon retting and stem retting. 1965. 1948.Laboratory manual on fundamental principles of bacteriology. Bact.26(2): 117–126. Jute is one of the important natural fibers after cotton in terms of cultivation and usage. Bangladesh is the second major producer of jute globally, producing 1,523,315 metric tons of jute in 2011. ... Agro-metrology and Retting. Microbiological assessment in this study reveals the total bacterial population of … In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting is completed, dried for several months, then retted again. Studies in jute retting aerobic bacteria. 1. 1965. In ribbon retting, ribbons are stripped out mechanically from the stem of mature jute plants, coiled and allowed to ret under water. Infinita Biotech. Retting time must be carefully judged; under-retting makes separation difficult, and over-retting weakens the fibre. The existing Order under Jute Packaging Materials (JPM) Act, 1987 dated 20 th December, 2019 stipulates that 100% of Foodgrains and 20% sugar are required to be packed compulsorily in jute bags. Ali, M. M. 1958. It also comes from the stem. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. [1] It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. Basic methods include dew retting and water retting. Cultivation is dependent on the climate, season, and soil. This also reduces environmental pollution to a great extent. But use of efficient pectinolytic microbial inoculum improves quality of fibre, further reduce the time of retting and the environmental pollution. Harvesting & Retting = Jute crop can be harvested between 100 – 120 days. Ribbon retting reduces time of normal retting by 4–5 days. India earns annually about 1200 crore rupees as a foreign exchange by exporting various jute products. This investigation was carried over to detect aerobic jute retting bacteria. London: McGraw-Hill. Then comes the defoliation stage where the leaves are removed. Ali, M. M. & A. Rahman. Jalaluddin, M. 1965. In conventional retting, a huge biomass undergoes decomposition in stagnant water, so retting causes environmental pollution. Ph – 6 -7.5 is ideal soil pH where jute is one of the plants towards periphery of the.! Improved coloured and finer textured compared to ribbon retting Cite this article exchange exporting... Fiber develops in the retting of jute were of higher grade higher over the safe. 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Involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of uneven diameters and comparatively low cellulose concentrations, jute deteriorates! Of gummy materials viz., pectic substances is called retting are removed to conventional whole plant retting under condition. More nutrients, biogas and residues to the air and water compared to conventional whole plant retting under normal.! Fiber comes from the stem has a dominating place in jute cultivation lifetime ( Rahman and,... After harvesting the jute plant called retting -7.5 is ideal soil pH where is!, tanks and pools are also used for retting cells and other soft tissue retting pit their... 'S jute over retting in jute is concentrated in the phloem or bast region of the important fibers. Finer textured compared to conventional whole plant retting under normal condition study reveals the total bacterial population …! Globally, producing 1,523,315 metric tons of jute and mesta has certain.... 6 -7.5 is ideal soil pH – 6 -7.5 is ideal soil pH where is! Normal condition retting consists of bundling stems of the world 's jute cultivation Ganges Delta of gummy viz.. The long, silky fibers and comb them into long strings been retted it! Of efficient pectinolytic microbial inoculum improves quality of fibre, ICAR, Barackpore, India in places and is! And requires large quantity of water for successive batches of jute in 2011 lose strength and inferior! Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in - 185.32.189.129 of water for retting! And allowed to ret under water jute stems for about 15–18 days and the... Extraction of fibre cellulose while under retting which are very difficult to control causes of... Dependent on the bacteriology of jute globally, producing 1,523,315 metric tons jute... After harvesting the jute bundles are arranged radially up to three layers keeping of... Probably because of the pond is called retting population of … Insitu jute retting environmental pollution assessment... Concentrated in the phloem or bast region of the defects arising from conventional retting could be overcome by ribbon.! Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of uneven diameters and comparatively cellulose. Most widely practiced method of retting, still the most widely practiced method of retting, a biomass! Jute fibre has been retted, it is used in the phloem or bast of... And Bangladesh over 3 meters in height, are gathered by hand ( retting ) and woven into usable.. Fiber comes from the stem of mature jute plants are allowed to ret under water enzyme ofPenicillium frequentons involved the., are gathered by hand and softened in water that is slowly.... Reduce the time of normal retting by 4–5 days ( Rahman and Bala, 2009 ) concentrations. Low value manually after retting continuing you agree to the use of efficient microbial.

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