Find at least three Internet sites (sources) Wikipedia is NOT an accepted source – about the person. Components  of transformational and  transactional leadership principles are incorporated into training strategies used by governments, corporations, and sports teams. Sample Research Paper on Leadership in Business A transactional leader pays more attention to the leader and therefore the subjects are paid in terms of their compliance and effort. Situational favorability is determined by three factors: the extent to which the task facing the group is structured, the legitimate power of the leader, and the relations between the leader and his subordinates. Members of the in-group typically are those who are highly committed to the organization, work harder, show loyalty to the leader, and share more administrative duties. Conger, Jay , and Rabindra N. Kanungo. Shamir, Boas, Robert House, and Michael B. Arthur. Path-goal theory of leadership: A meta-analysis. Peer reviewed paper presented at the Gallop Leadership Institute Summit, Omaha, NE. LEADERSHIP RESEARCH PAPER. (1977). 1986. 2000). It was not until the publication of a meta-analysis by Robert Lord, Christy de Vader, and George Alliger (1986) that such traits as intelligence and personality regained favor with leadership researchers. Blake, R. R., & Mouton, J. S. (1984). For this reason, a leader may favor a member who is similar in sex, race, or outlook with assignment to the in-group, although research by Murphy and Ensher (1999) indicated that the perception of similarity is more important than actual demographic similarities. In this article the author discussed what leader effectiveness is and how it is measured based on outcomes. Thus, leaders must exhibit different behaviors to reach different goals, depending on the situation. In this phase the pattern established by the leader and member becomes established. Just from $10/Page. Organization analysis: A sociological view. The answer is none of them is uniformly preferred, and each process has different costs and benefits. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model sought to answer this question. Internal leadership development programs tend to focus on three major areas: the development of social interaction networks both between people within a given organization and between organizations that work with one another, the development of trusting relationships between leaders and followers, and the development of common values and a shared vision among leaders and followers. A critical component  of this theory is the selffulfilling prophecy,  which  suggests that  raising leader expectations regarding follower achievement produces an improvement in the followers’ performance (Eden 1990). Other changes will come about as a result of new and emerging technologies. The first component is idealized influence (charisma). They often use symbols to focus the efforts of their followers. In the future, leadership is likely to become more group centered as organizations become more decentralized. The need for achievement is manifested in the desire to solve problems and accomplish tasks. The leader expresses concern for the subordinates’ well-being and is supportive of them as individuals, not just as workers. Their reward is greater access to the leader’s resources, including information, concern, and confidence. Thus, Gibb (1969) has pointed out that many groups prefer to be “ill-governed by people [they] can understand” (p. 218). However, anyone can improve his or her leadership skills. Results failed to  support  the  contingency model predictions. One of the first psychologists to develop a contingency approach to leadership effectiveness was Fred Fiedler (1964, 1967), who believed that a leader’s style is a result of lifelong experiences that are not easy to change. Bass, B. M. (1997). Promoting more integrative strategies for leadership theory building. As a form of leadership development, there are several advantages to mentoring. Research Paper By Kimberly Denise Dennis (Life Coach, UNITED STATES) Once seen as the last step for an executive about to fall off the ladder, leadership coaches now help smooth a promotion, teach outsiders about their new culture, and tune up talent.- The French diplomat Talleyrand once said, “I am more afraid of an army of 100 sheep led by a lion than an army of 100 lions led by a sheep.” Effective leadership guides nations in times of peril, promotes effective team and group performance, makes organizations successful, and, in the form of parenting, nurtures the next generation. Eden, Dov, Dvorah Geller, Abigail Gewirtz, et al. Weber proposed that charisma can occur when a leader with certain qualities emerges during a crisis to propose a new vision (Weber 1946). Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A MetaAnalytic Test of their Relative Validity. Thus, the process of becoming the new leader is often an arduous, albeit rewarding, journey of learning and self-development. Relations Between the Size of the Group and the Behavior of “Superior” Leaders. (2007). Vroom, Victor , and Philip W. Yetton. This approach has three components. Solving costly organizational conflicts: Achieving intergroup trust, cooperation, and teamwork. Paper Masters custom writes research papers on leadership and defines what makes a great leader, either by looking at current business theory or current leaders. Typical of external leadership development programs are the seminars offered by the American Management Association. Leadership in organizations (4th ed.). House, Robert 1977. View Leadership Style Research Papers on for free. For example, in a series of classic studies, McClelland and his colleagues (see McClelland & Boyatzis, 1982) identified three motives that contribute to leadership. Outcomes associated with mentoring protégés: A meta-analysis. Participative leadership. Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). In the process of doing that, they change their followers’ beliefs, values, and needs. In. Question 2. Text Message for a Quote: 1-570-301-7456. In. The Journal of Research on Leadership Education (JRLE) provides an international venue for scholarship and discourse on the teaching and learning of leadership across the many disciplines that inform the field of educational leadership. The challenges of leadership in the modern world: Introduction to the special issue. For example, leaders from northern European countries are more participative and less self-protective whereas leaders from southern Asia are more humane and less participative. The trials involved in this rite of passage have serious consequences for both the individual and the organization. As a result, they are more likely to consult with others before making decisions, praise the accomplishment of their followers, and be less directive in their supervision. Excerpt from Research Paper : Introduction The action plan to promote effective organizational change with an emphasis on conflict management policy for my organization has as its main goal the fostering of cohesiveness, communication, and dedication. The great man concept suggested that leaders possessed special traits or characteristics that allowed them to ascend above others and enhanced their ability to be leaders (Hollander and Offermann 1990b). As a result of the readings/videos, assignments, and discussions I was enlightened that situational factors can a strong effect on leadership. Contingency and situational theories examine both the tasks and the follower characteristics to specify what behavior is required of effective leaders. The second component is inspirational motivation. To answer this question, the researchers developed a matrix that outlines the five decision processes that range from highly autocratic through consultative to highly participative (see Table 68.4). 26 pages), an outline, and a bibliography with 38 sources. 1986. The actions and personalities of leaders usually are reduced to messages about current events. New York: Perseus. 3 Leadership Research Paper Literature Review Robert Greenleaf was the first writer to describe the phrase servant leader. LEADERSHIP RESEARCH PAPER: POLITICAL LEADERSHIP 2 Leadership Research Paper: Political Leadership There are no argues bigger then argues about leadership. Promo code: cd1a428655, Political Science Research Paper Examples, Domestic Violence Research Paper Examples. It may be that the productivity of a group can have a greater impact on leadership style than leadership style does on the productivity of the group. This kind of feedback can be useful in identifying areas in need of improvement. This theory describes how leaders maintain their influence by treating individual followers differently. Other theories suggest that leadership consists of specific skills and behaviors. This includes personal characteristics, situational interaction, vision, values, behaviours, and style. Members use their implicit theories to sort people into either leaders or followers based on the extent to which others conform to their implicit theory of what a leader should be. The fourth and final step is the implementation of the plan. +1-315 515-4588 In general, studies have demonstrated that leadership succession causes turbulence and instability resulting in performance decrements in most organizations and thus constitutes a major challenge to organizations. The third component is intellectual stimulation. 2000. Potter, Earl , William E. Rosenbach, and Thane S. Pittman. House, Robert , and G. Dessler. Fiedler, F. E. (1967). Hersey, Paul, and Kenneth Blanchard. As you look at the list, it is clear that a person can be a leader without being a manager and be a manager without being a leader. New leaders should first learn to listen, and then provide leadership. In contrast, current research on in extremis leadership, or leadership of teams facing death (e.g., fire departments, SWAT teams, and the military) shows that the environment itself provides the inherent motivation. Later, Francis Galton expounded on this concept in Hereditary  Genius (1869), where he argued that reputation flows from heredity. Based on argument, the effective leadership is important and does effect on organizational outcomes. In sum up, effective leaders have power over specific traits and show specific behaviors or styles of leadership. Governments, businesses, industries, and private organizations have all turned to behavioral scientists to  better  understand  how organizations work efficiently, how managers can improve workers’ performance, how teamwork and commitment can be instilled, and how an environment conducive to change can be structured. Modern theories have sought to explain these challenges. Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Ilies, R., & Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). Some of the more  recent  definitions  focus on  influence,  collective understanding, effectiveness, and facilitation: The common thread in the majority of definitions is that leadership is an active process of one person exerting influence over one or more other persons toward a common goal or objective. Starting from this perspective, this research paper first briefly examines major challenges facing contemporary organizations, then reviews a number of alternative ways of looking at leadership in organizations, and finally considers some specific leadership requirements presented by change and globalization, the two largest organizational challenges of this century. Great leaders of the past do seem different from ordinary human beings. A 2004 meta-analysis by Avolio and colleagues compared studies in which the researcher manipulated newgenre leadership with studies that manipulated traditional theories (e.g. Introduction to Management: Management Theory Planning is a task that has long been associated with the role of management. The members of the in-group are given high levels of responsibility, influence over decision making, and access to resources. Factor analytic studies have recognized four key components of transformational leadership (Bass 1985; Avolio and Howell 1992): (1) charismatic leadership or idealized influence; (2)  inspirational motivation;  (3)  intellectual stimulation; and (4) individualized consideration. Some leadership traits were dependent upon the culture, including ambition and elitism. Charismatic leaders tend to be self-confident and  achievement-motivated; they  also desire to assert influence, and they possess strong convictions. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, 46–78. However, women are much more likely to adopt a participative or transformational leadership style whereas men are more likely to be autocratic, laissez-faire, or transactional (Eagly & Johnson, 1990). Finally, personal characteristics such as attractiveness, height, and poise are associated with effective leadership. Question 5. However, theorists using more sophisticated methodological and conceptual approaches have revived this approach. One of the latest new-genre approaches to leadership is the framework proposed in authentic leadership theory (Gardner et al. The participative style encourages getting the opinions and help of others. Problems with the Pygmalion Effect and Some Proposed Solutions. In, Carlyle, 1841. Leaders take stands on difficult issues and urge their followers to follow suit. LEADERSHIP RESEARCH PAPER. John Kenneth Galbraith, in his book The Age of Uncertainty, wrote that “All of the great leaders have had one characteristic in common: it was the willingness to confront unequivocally the major anxiety of their people in their time. A second approach to leadership development is a technique known as grid training. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. To have a successful transaction, the leader must provide direction, guidance, and technical knowledge, as well as recognition of followers’ inputs. Behavioral Theory of Charismatic Leadership in Organizational Settings. Does the transactional-transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? Journal of Contemporary Business, 3, 81–97. Implicit leadership theories (Lord & Maher, 1991) provide a cognitive explanation for leadership emergence. The self-protective style involves following agreed-upon procedures, being cognizant of the status hierarchy, and saving face. Although behavioral approaches to leadership generated great interest, they also generated a number of controversies, including accusations of inconsistencies in findings (Bass and Stogdill 1990). Miller, Katherine , and Peter R. Monge. Ralph Stogdill was the first researcher to summarize the results of these studies. The quality of the leader-member relationship is dependent on several factors. A leader can be anyone in the organization, regardless of their particular role in the organizational structure. Weber, M 1946. 1987. 2005. (2003). This is a process whereby leaders may learn what peers, subordinates, and superiors think of their performance. As a  result,  later researchers erroneously concluded that personal traits and attributes alone could not be used to predict future leadership success. Under pressure, person-oriented leaders tend to withdraw socially. Results showed that new-genre approaches to leadership had appreciably larger effects than those based on traditional leadership theories for both affective and cognitive dependent variables, while traditional theories had a slightly larger effect on more proximal behavioral outcomes. Ethical leaders stimulate followers to think independently and to question the leader’s views. Hollander (1958) explained that leadership was a social exchange transaction between leaders and followers where “legitimacy” was the currency of the exchange. These leaders demonstrate inherent  motivation,  continuous  learning, shared risk, common lifestyle with their followers, competency, trust, and loyalty (Kolditz 2007). Paper Masters custom writes research papers on leadership and defines what makes a great leader, either by looking at current business theory or current leaders. Using metaanalytic techniques, their results supported social perception  theories where several traits  were expected to  be related to leadership perception. Gardner, William , Bruce J. Avolio, Fred Luthans, et al. Avolio, Bruce , and William L. Gardner. published articles on leadership, from 136 in 1970-71, to 258 in 1980-81, 1,105 in 1990-91, and a staggering 10,062 in 2001-02 (an average of 419 articles per month) (Storey, 2004). Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key values. The great man theory led to hundreds of research studies that looked at personality traits, physical characteristics, intelligences, and values to differentiate leaders from followers. These cognitive structures are called implicit leadership theories or leader prototypes. In this report a discussion will be presented about the role of the leaders in aligning the employees of the organization. Given the importance of leadership to the success of groups, organizations, or even entire civilizations, there are few more pressing questions than, “What is leadership?” Attempts to answer this question are evident in early discussions of the notion  of leaders. House, Robert 1971. Among the seminars offered in the area of general leadership are critical thinking, storytelling, and team development in a variety of areas such as instructional technology or government. They argued that this approach is useful because certain combinations of task and relationship behaviors may be more effective in certain situations than in others. House, R. J. This paper ends with a conclusion summarizing the research followed by possible recommendations. Free Leadership Essays and Papers. In. Graen, B., and S. Ginsburgh. As many definitions of leadership exist as do authors who have studied the concept. Hollander developed a transactional leadership model, and  in  its context coined the term idiosyncratic credit. They have also assisted in answering the question, “Can we develop leaders?” However, these theories do not address the most pressing questions. Note that every line in a literature review must be properly cited. Although most of us would agree that leadership is extraordinarily important, research in this field has yet to arrive at a generally accepted definition of what leadership is, create a widely accepted paradigm for studying leadership, or find the best strategies for developing and practicing leadership. For example, Perrow (1970) suggests that leadership effectiveness is dependent upon structural aspects of the organization. Leadership in organizations. Hersey and Blanchard used the terms task behaviors and relationship behaviors and sought to explain why leadership effectiveness varies across these two dimensions. Eight leadership traits (e.g., ruthlessness and irritability) were identified as being universally undesirable. In short, the attributes of effective leaders were seen as inborn and permanent, and they applied to various circumstances. A Meta-analysis of the Relation Between Personality Traits and Leadership Perceptions: An Application of Validity Generalization  Procedures. A meta-analysis by Allen, Eby, Poteet, Lima, and Lentz (2004) indicated that individuals who were mentored showed greater organizational commitment, lower turnover, higher career satisfaction, enhanced leadership skills, and a better understanding of their organization. Therefore, leaders in these extreme environments focus on continual learning and shared risk to build competency, loyalty, and trust (Kolditz 2007). The  theory hypothesizes that  certain subordinates will respond better to directions when a task is unstructured (e.g., developing building plans) than when a task is structured  (e.g., air traffic controlling) (House  and  Dessler 1974). Life Cycle Theory of Leadership. 1979. Bass and Stogdill’s handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. Subordinates in the outgroup  are supervised through  a more formal authority process. Some examples of the type of questions that should be asked are “Do I have enough information to make a decision? In. Get discount 10% for the first order. Project GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) is an extensive international project involving 170 researchers who have gathered data from 18,000 managers in 62 countries (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorman, & Gupta, 2004). Some commentators assume that  certain individuals are predisposed to  be  leaders, while others are not. Indvik, J. As a result of training and education, transformational leaders motivate and enable followers to accomplish more than what is expected, set increasingly higher goals, and achieve higher standards. New genre refers to theories that have dominated leadership research since the 1980s, including charismatic, inspirational, transformational, and visionary leadership (Bass 1998;  Bryman 1992). The Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 24, 362–368. 205–282). We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates. Charismatic leaders are usually quite articulate, with superior debating and persuasive skills. An  understanding  of  the  historical literature  and  the changing  philosophies behind  leadership  studies  add meaning and depth  to current integrated theories. In a review of leadership research, Stogdill (1974, p.259) concluded that there are “almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept” - and that was 30 years ago! However, other scholars assume that context is most important in developing leaders. Research indicates that these peer relationships tend to be long-lasting. It gives them hope. When you have selected the subject, do not detract from it throughout the whole work. 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